Combined use of physical methods and small sized carriers for percutaneous penetration enhancement with an aesthetic purpose.
Dermal and transdermal ingredients delivery (due to its non-invasiveness, avoidance of the first-pass metabolism, controlling the rate of ingredients input over a prolonged time, etc.) have gained significant acceptance.
According to a recent publication in the journal of Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews ,Several methods are employed to overcome the permeability barrier of the skin, improving substance penetration into/through skin. Among chemical penetration enhancement methods, small sized carriers have been extensively studied. When applied alone, small sized carriers mostly deliver the ingredients to skin and can be used to alleviate many skin conditions.